A new, effective method of medically significant hydrogen therapy
Yes, you read correctly – hydrogen! Not hydrogen peroxide and not water, but hydrogen. So, we are talking here about the pure, gaseous element that you can buy in red pressure bottles from the gas supplier around the corner and with which cars will drive in the future. The idea of using this pure hydrogen for medical purposes has its soft beginnings in 1975, when Dole et al. published experiments in the renowned Science Journal in which cancer mice were given hydrogen to breathe.1 Although the results showed that the treatment of the mice led to a reduction in tumours and although it was a well-known scientific journal in which this was published, there were only a handful of other articles on the subject of hydrogen therapy by 2007. So, the idea slumbered.
Until then, in June 2007, Dr. Ikuroh Ohsawa et al. published a groundbreaking paper on the therapeutic use of elemental hydrogen in the journal “Nature Medicine”.2 At the time, Dr. Ohsawa worked at the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology at the Medical University of Nippon/Kawasaki/Japan. This work is considered by most to be the origin of the still young medical hydrogen research/application. In the university world, this short period of almost 12 years has surprisingly resulted in more than 500 additional publications. Worldwide, an estimated 1500 scientists are now working intensively on this form of therapy and the question is: Why didn’t anyone think of it before?
Even as a schoolboy I was fascinated by the oversized periodic table of the elements on the wall and liked to direct my gaze to the position at the very top, far left – atomic number 1, atomic mass 1, letter H – “The first element”. The H stands for the name of hydrogen in English: Hydrogen. “In the beginning was hydrogen” – that’s what it sounds like in all of us, since our school days.
Strictly speaking, it should read “In the beginning (the origin of the universe as we imagine it today) there were hydrogen nuclei”, i.e. hydrogen particles, without electrons. Because what we generally understand by the term hydrogen today is the form of hydrogen naturally and exclusively occurring under terrestrial conditions as a two-atomic hydrogen molecule H2, also called elementary hydrogen. The young Earth’s atmosphere was once also enriched with larger amounts of hydrogen and this certainly had a decisive influence, or rather conditioned each other with the formation and growth of the first microorganisms. Bacteria that produce hydrogen are also found, physiologically and/or pathologically, in our digestive tract.
If the intestinal flora is intact, they only colonize the large intestine and not the small intestine or stomach (such as Helicobacter pylori). The hydrogen produced by the colon bacteria can be detected with an H2 breath test. According to the theory of “immigration” or fusion of unicellular organisms with bacteria, which became today’s mitochondria, it therefore also makes sense why hydrogen is of such central importance in the now well-researched cell-energy metabolism. We will come back to this in more detail later.
Due to the low atomic mass, however, our atmosphere is now impoverished in hydrogen, since the light gas is not sufficiently retained by planetary gravity and passes into the universe through normal molecular motion. So, with this gaseous hydrogen H2 one can achieve all kinds of medical and therapeutic results. This has already been impressively demonstrated by the aforementioned legions of experts, physicians, biochemists, physicists and pharmacists.
The headlines of scientific publications are unusually clearly decorated with superlatives and medical successes. In the review from the year 2015 by Ichihara et al., quoted above, there is even literal mention of “drastic effects”, referring to the effectiveness of H2 as a medicine! Such enthusiasm is rather rare in the otherwise rather sober research environment. With the search words “Ohsawa Hydrogen” or “Ohsawa Hydrogen”, for example, anyone can quickly get an idea on the Internet of how astonishingly far the topic of hydrogen therapy has already progressed, mainly at renowned universities in Japan, Korea, China and the USA.
Europe is lagging behind in medical hydrogen research. I think it’s time to wake up – also because of this now this publication of a simple, safe and inexpensive method, above all as an impulse for the practical application of hydrogen, which hopefully will appeal to many doctors and alternative practitioners.
This is urgent. Because the enormously positive effects of molecular hydrogen on human health, which have already been described for the treatment of about 200 different diseases, are still limited by the difficulties, or let’s say peculiarities, in the application of the therapeutic agent hydrogen itself.
In order to understand this, let us first go back to our school days in thought. Hydrogen, the gas with the lowest density (about 14 times lighter than air), dissolves poorly in water! At best, under laboratory conditions and only for a short time, the solubility is stated to be about 10 to 18 millilitres of H2 gas in one litre of water, depending on water temperature and pressure. This corresponds to only about 0.0007 grams of hydrogen (calculated with the ideal gas equation)!
With hydrogen, however, one can assume that the rule “much helps much” would actually be usefully applicable. This has different reasons. Hydrogen shows no toxicity whatsoever to the human/animal organism, i.e. it cannot be overdosed! A succinct reference to Wikipedia: “Hydrogen is non-toxic and does not harm the environment. (https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wasserstoff). And further under the section “Biological significance”: “In terms of the number of atoms, hydrogen is even by far the most common atom in the body of any living being” and “In the mitochondria, the transfer of hydrogen between different molecules the so-called respiratory chain to generate energy-rich compounds such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP).”
Yeah, there were a lot of interesting things to learn at school.
Biochemistry of Hydrogen
To illustrate the importance of hydrogen for our body, let us remember the maximally simplified basic equation of cell metabolism from biology lessons:
C6H12O6+ 6 O2→ 6 CO2+ 6 H2O + energy
Glucose (dextrose) and oxygen from the air are converted to carbon dioxide and water in the mitochondria. This is an exothermic process (oxidation) and thus energy is released. Unfortunately, even today, students are taught the nonsense that the resulting CO2 is “metabolic waste”. Nature itself never produces waste. The carbon dioxide produced is of course also enormously important for our organism – for maintaining the partial pressure gradient for gas exchange in the lungs/tissue, for striking the balance of the pH value of the blood with carbonic acid (H2CO3 = CO2 dissolved in water), as a messenger substance for various biochemical processes.
And unfortunately, the above basic metabolic equation has also repeatedly led to sugar being propagated as an ideal food – according to the motto “clean combustion”. What is overlooked here is that, firstly, nature has ensured that the comparatively small amount of glucose required for the “human operation” is provided autotrophically from fatty acids and proteins and that, secondly (first semester pathology), glucose (like other monosaccharides) is a vascular wall/endothelial toxin.
Just use your math from elementary school and quickly calculate in your head how little sugar the “human enterprise” needs: The normal blood sugar level (BZ) says that there should be about 80 milligrams of glucose per 100 ml of blood fluid in the entire bloodstream for us to feel good. That is 800 milligrams (= 0.8 grams) in one liter and about 4 grams in total, assuming a blood volume of 5 liters for an adult. 4 grams of sugar! That is about one teaspoon not heaped up!
Have you ever thought about what happens if you eat a chocolate bar and drink a coke with it? If you lack the imagination for this, then take a look at the packaging to see how many grams of sugar are contained in such “foods” – how many multiples of 4 grams.
However, high blood sugar levels are intended by nature in threatening exceptional situations only. When life-threatening situations arise, the sugar content in the circulation is temporarily increased to 2.5 times the normal initial value by the body’s own messenger substances and store reduction to enable “fight or flight”. Nature has also regulated an even higher, uncontrolled increase in the blood sugar level: From values of approx. 200 mg/dl, the sugar leaves the body quickly via the kidneys and is then detectable in the urine (Latin for diabetes). Why this regulation, which seems like wasting? Yes, because, as mentioned before, glucose is a vascular wall poison and it makes no sense to have blood capillary damage in the eye or peripheral nerves after the mammoth hunt, as we know it from modern diabetics.
What does all this have to do with hydrogen? To answer this question, we now look at the above basic metabolic equation with different eyes and find out: sugar, glucose, is nothing else than a molecular vehicle, a container, for, right, for hydrogen! Hence the name hydrocarbon or carbohydrate.
C6H12O6+ 6 O2→ 6 CO2+ 6 H2O + Energie
In the whole complexity of the citrate cycle and the respiratory chain, the aim is simply to pass on hydrogen at a molecular level, and thereby use the transfer of reduction equivalents. Seen the other way around: hydrogen is oxidized and that releases energy. Water, H2O, is hydrogen oxide, i.e. “burned” hydrogen. Just as carbon oxide is burned carbon.
And how is the hydrogen transported in mitochondrial metabolism? When it comes to energy production in the mitochondria with the help of the respiratory chain, many people are familiar with the enzyme NAD+, which is needed to convert ADP into ATP. For this reason, some people take NADH tablets, the enzyme form to which a hydrogen particle has been attached (a hydride ion to be precise). The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide thus acts as a transferring agent of hydrogen equivalents. The H-particles extracted from the glucose container during metabolism are transferred to the oxygen. This way NAD+ and hydrogen are formed again. So, it is always about the hydrogen and therefore the intake of NADH is an illogical or unnecessary procedure. There is no lack of NAD+, because it can be produced in the body in large quantities in two ways – from niacin and from the amino acid tryptophan.
At this point it is also interesting to look at the molecular binding energies involved. Because before the exothermic, i.e. energy-providing, union of hydrogen and oxygen atoms can occur, the old atomic bonds, i.e. those in the glucose molecules, must be separated, which first of all means an energy expenditure (in classical chemistry this is called activation energy). This can be approximated as follows: C – H 413 kJ/mol, O – H 463 kJ/mol, gives a weighted average of 434 kJ/mol (five O-H bonds and seven C-H bonds in the glucose molecule). Compared to the bond energy in the hydrogen molecule, i.e. H – H, we find 436 kJ/mol there. An identical value! It is therefore unnecessary to question that our metabolic system can use the molecular hydrogen. The bond distance between the two hydrogen atoms is very small, 74 picometres. For comparison: C – H 108 picometres and O – H 97 picometres. This significantly enhances the mobility and enzymatic handling of H2 in cells in general and in the mitochondria in particular.
Now we have put everything together to comprehend why simple natural hydrogen gas shows such amazing healing effects3,4,, up to the curative effect after craniocerebral injuries!5 And why it can even be of enormous importance as prevention against stroke, aging, nerve degeneration, pulmonary/liver and kidney fibrosis, and much more.6, 7, 8 Because the principle “mitochondrial metabolism is okay – cells are healthy – human being is healthy” cannot be contradicted, and so the reverse view that the actual cause of many, perhaps all diseases, can be seen in a weakened or unbalanced cell-energy balance is permissible. Weakened cell metabolisms occur for many reasons, but they all have one thing in common: the use of hydrogen from the glucose container, i.e. the process of getting out the atom H from the CHO package, is hindered! A real oxygen deficiency (the other component in the above energy equation) at the level of the respiratory chain is much less likely, because pure oxygen is present in the atmosphere as an element in abundance and is already “naked”. It does not have to be provided by enzymatic chains. So why didn’t anyone think of this earlier? Did it take until 2007 to realise the idea (see “Ideas”, Peter Watson, 2006) that “naked” hydrogen is good for cells?
And why does it work at all? Well, the many study results and therapy successes with medical hydrogen for the most diverse symptoms seem to make this question superfluous at first – “who heals is right” is often quoted. However, in order to extract the full power of this new form of therapy and to further optimize it, it would of course make sense to approach it on the level of basic research. Much has already been done. Even the in vivo kinetics after H2 administration in various kinds has already been well studied.9, 10 Nevertheless, medical hydrogen research is still, and probably for a long time to come, in a phase where new research results are constantly creating new question marks. Either one is satisfied with empirical medicine, which always works well in the case of the warm onion sac in middle ear inflammation and does not require official studies. Or one would like to actually understand things. Then you should not complain afterwards that the findings, as well as the questions, are becoming increasingly complex. Questions generate questions. Research is a way of serving. It never stops. In the case of H2 and its use in the body for a wide range of symptoms, it will be worthwhile to do research. I consider a concept of using pure elements, of which our organism is built (hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus, …), in combination with energy, for example in the form of electromagnetism, i.e. moving charges, to be the basis of the basic innovations, which will form a future “medicine-Kondratjew” and lead to some kind of “expected health technology”. As the physicist Stephen Hawking, who left in March 2018, once put it analogously: If we do not believe that what we see in science fiction movies today will come true, we are wrongly limiting the human mind.
There are already many proofs/reasons for the fact that hydrogen therapy works perfectly. Here are the most important ones from my point of view:
- H2, as a highly mobile, small molecule substance, can easily penetrate biochemical barriers in the body, such as cell membranes, once it has been put into the body.
- Hydrogen protects DNA, RNA, protein structures, … from oxidative stress.11There is a specific scavenging activity against the two most aggressive reactive oxygen species (ROS), hydroxyl radical HO∙ and peroxynitrite anion ONOO¯.
- Hydrogen leads to the activation/production of further antioxidative enzymes (e.g. glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, etc.) and further cell-protecting protein structures!12
- Molecularhydrogen as a messenger can modulate the triggering of cell signaling action chains13, improve cell metabolism14, regulate gene expression15and show anti-inflammatory, allergy-inhibiting and cell stabilizing effects.16
Back to the dilemma of physical-technical hydrogen application problems. In principle, a substance can be used as a therapeutic gas, either firstly as an inhalation or secondly, dissolved in water, as a drink or infusion/injection. The first variant is very easy to use. I have equipped a simple hydrogen gas pressure bottle with a pressure reducer with integrated flowmeter (volume flow meter) and connected the tube of a standard nasal probe/nasal cannula, as they are usually used in clinics.
In this way, the molecular hydrogen can be inhaled. Attention: Hydrogen forms explosive mixtures with air/oxygen from concentrations of 4%! Although this method can now also be seen on YouTube in many different variations and is apparently the solution to all problems, it is forgotten that where in the organism the gas exchange takes place, namely in the alveoli, highly specific and highly sensitive biophysical processes take place at the same time. To make a long story short, these are designed for the gas pair oxygen and carbon dioxide and have something to do with diffusion behaviour, density, specific heat capacity and other parameters of the gases involved. Although not yet exactly researched, it can be said that the breathing of hydrogen gas is not as effective as hoped for.
The second variant suffers from the already shown low solubility of hydrogen in water. Therefore, for effective use in this way, one either needs a way to increase the solubility of H2 in water or would have to use large amounts of water. So far the increase of the solubility has been achieved by applying hydrogen gas to the infusion solutions under high pressure (HRS = Hydrogen Rich Solution). This is a second complicated and expensive process, which is carried out in Asia using equipment from diving medicine research (Department of Diving Medicine, 2nd Military Medical University, China). The amount of hydrogen in the water obtained in this way is stated as > o.6 mmol per litre, which also corresponds to only 13 millilitres after conversion. It is not possible to increase the volume of liquid used arbitrarily, as infusion quantities of more than half a litre or a whole litre of water are already critical. It is not much better with the beverage variant – the hydrogen water produced under pressure does not retain the dissolved hydrogen for long due to gas exchange when the bottle is opened and drinking quantities of more than one litre are also unrealistic in practice. A more recent variant is the HIM = Hydrogen Infusion Machine, which is currently being developed in Asia. They do not work with pressure, which is too ineffective and dangerous in practice, but on the continuous flow principle. Water is passed through a cell containing a PEM cell, i.e. an electrolysis membrane, which simultaneously produces hydrogen gas according to the reverse principle of the fuel cell. The infusion water thus bubbled is then administered intravenously. So, it should actually be called HSIM = Hydrogen-Solution Infusion Machine. HIM is misleading because it is not gaseous hydrogen. But even in industry, of course, the benevolent principle of artistic freedom applies. The machines are already celebrated as “the super thing” and the participating medical technology companies dream the eternal dream of big money… Not least because hydrogen is also marketed as an anti-aging agent. As explained, however, this technological variant also has the same disadvantages: H2 solubility is low and the amount of water that can be administered is limited.
MHGI – A new method
MHGI stands for Medical Hydrogen Gas Injection. A direct application of hydrogen in gaseous form for infusions, a variant that has not been used at all up to now, is obvious. In all these years it has only been mentioned once – a scientific experimental work in which hydrogen gas was injected intraperitoneally into mice, i.e. absorption via the peritoneum.17
All the unfavourable conditions for an effective and inexpensive use of hydrogen as a therapeutic agent led to the development of the method described here, with which it is possible in the first development step to supply up to 60 ml (!) of hydrogen gas directly to the body’s circulation in a simple way. The method has been tested and, as not to be expected otherwise, is very well tolerated.
I use two simple and at the same time old-fashioned devices: A so-called Hofmann’s electrolysis, consisting of the glass apparatus and a simple standard power supply unit for the required current voltage, as well as an equally commercially available perfusor from the B. Braun company, which is used in every clinic for infusion therapy for quantities below 100 ml.
With the help of Hofmann’s electrolysis, hydrogen gas of high purity is produced from water (the school’s lessons send greetings), which collects in the right glass tube (cathode side) and is then taken up with the normal 60 ml perfusor syringe through a simple bacteria filter. The gas-filled syringe is placed in the perfusor, the Luer female end of the butterfly or the Heidelberg extension (when using an intravenous catheter) is attached to the Luer male syringe cone and the start button is pressed. The hydrogen gas is administered directly intravenously.
Volume and time can be easily and safely adjusted using the controls on the perfuser.
When it comes to dosages and therapy intervals, an additional aspect of the MHGI method may be included at this point. A gaseous volume flow creates microbubbles at the tip of the cannula in the fluid flow of the vein/bloodstream. Due to the low solubility of hydrogen in water, these microbubbles have a certain range, i.e. survival time, until they are adsorbed. They cause a kind of micro-bubbling effect, a “knocking” of the bubbles against the vessel walls. Although this biophysical-physiological effect has not been researched in detail, it is generally accepted that this is an additional and thoroughly positive, because regenerative, effect, the “gas method”. In the case of the therapy according to Regelsberger, for example, it was even suggested in some cases that its medical effects were mainly due to micro-bubbling.
In any case, at the beginning of a hydrogen therapy, this effect can lead to temporary side effects such as a feeling of pressure in the diaphragm region, slight dizziness, light drowsiness or tiredness if the dosage per time unit is too high. For this reason, the parameters volume flow per time and treatment duration are used step by step instead of being used fully at the first infusion, i.e. at the beginning of the therapy. Therapy cycles in 10-minute steps and volumes of 1 to 2 ml per minute are generally well tolerated. For acutely or chronically severely ill patients I would initially proceed in 5-minute steps with 0.5 ml. The frequency of therapy can also be increased from initially twice a week up to once a day.
What are the indications which hydrogen therapy has already been successfully applied for?
It would go beyond the scope of this article to list all previous applications of medical hydrogen where positive therapeutic effects could be proven. In addition, there are also the numerous studies of test persons. Therefore, here is a selection that shows that so-called “serious” diseases are certainly among them and how manifold we can and may use “The First Element”:
Acute cerebral infarction, acute myocardial infarction, neurodegeneration / progressive paralysis, COPD, hepatitis and cirrhosis of the liver, post infarction syndromes, eye diseases, subarachnoid haemorrhage, lung transplantation, retinal artery occlusion, diabetes mellitus type II, metabolic syndrome, chronic renal failure, inflammation, mitochondrial myopathy, radiation-induced liver damage, rheumatoid arthritis, muscular fatigue, skin ulcers, interstitial cystitis, cerebral ischemia, UV-induced skin damage, hyperlipidemia, chronic hepatitis B, Parkinson’s disease,
sport induced soft tissue injuries, sport induced metabolic acidosis, vascular endothelial inflammation, impaired glucose tolerance, impaired cognition, chronic hemodialysis, impaired sperm motility and slowing down of aging.
While the many research results to date on the therapeutic use of hydrogen prove its amazing and extensive healing effect, it is still completely unclear, among many other open questions, which form of application is the most effective for which diseases – inhalation, drinking solution, liquid infusion, local-external with airbag, … or MHGI. Therefore, I call on physicians with scientific expertise to do research and to conduct joint studies to solve further mysteries of hydrogen effects and applications. One secret is already solved. It has been shown that intermittent hydrogen administration is more effective than continuous administration. The MHGI method is predestined for this and easily to be implemented in any practice/clinic. Therapy courses can be verified with the existing laboratory facilities.
Specialists in medical technology are also needed to automate MHGI using PEM cells and to enable further simplified and safe operation/application by practice personnel.
Hydrogen as a therapeutic agent can/should even find its way into intensive care medicine, where it is urgently needed, according to the results of studies to date, since cell repair is of particular importance here. The positive results of studies on various ischemias and organ infarcts, such as heart and brain infarctions, suggest this. As a reminder: Hydrogen does not show the slightest toxicity, is therefore absolutely free of side effects and can be combined with all other forms of therapy!
As author of “The DMSO Handbook” it is therefore obvious to suggest a combination treatment of hydrogen and DMSO. Both substances are specific radical scavengers, DMSO is also a “cell opener” and hydrogen, as we have heard, is a messenger substance. H2and dimethyl sulfoxide thus complement each other synergistically in their therapeutic effects. This can be practised quite simply with a three-way valve or by changing the plug. First a DMSO liquid infusion is switched and then the hydrogen gas infusion.
Summary: The pure element hydrogen has a nourishing, regulating and protective effect on our body from the cell perspective! Can you think of any other remedy that combines all these properties?
In the beginning was hydrogen.
- Hyperbaric hydrogen therapy: a possible treatment for cancer, Dole, M., Wilson, F.R., Fife, W.P., Science, 1975;190(4210):152–154.
- 2Hydrogen acts as a therapeutic antioxidant by selectively reducing cytotoxic oxygen radicals. Ohsawa, I., Ishikawa, M., Takahashi, K., Watanabe, M., Nishimaki, K., Yamagata, K., Katsura, K., Katayama, Y., Asoh, S., Ohta, S., Nature Medicine2007 Jun; 13(6):688-694.
- Author information: Dr. Ikuroh Ohsawa, Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Institute of Development and Aging Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Nippon Medical School, 1-396 Kosugi-cho, Nakahara-ku, Kawasaki City 211-8533, Japan.
- 3A review of hydrogen as a new medical therapy. Zhang, J.Y., Liu, C., Zhou, L., Qu, K., Wang, R., Tai, M.H., Lei, J.C., Wu, Q.F., Wang, Z.X., Hepatogastroenterology2012 Jun; 59(116):1026-1032.
- 4Beneficial biological effects and the underlying mechanisms of molecular hydrogen – comprehensive review of 321 original articles. Ichihara, M., Sobue, S., Ito, M., Hirayama, M., Ohno, K., Med Gas Res.2015; 5:12.
- 5Hydrogen-rich water attenuates brain damage and inflammation after traumatic brain injury in rats, Tian R., Hou Z., Hao S., Wu W., Mao X., Tao X., Lu T., Liu B., Brain research2016 April 15; 1637:1-13.
- 6Molecular hydrogen: An inert gas turns clinically effective. Ostojic S.M., Ann Med.2015 Jun; 47(4):301-304.
- 7Effects of hydrogen water on paraquat-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. Sato C, Kamijo Y, Yoshimura K, et al., Kitasato MedJ. 2015; 45(1):9–16.
- 8Effects of oral intake of hydrogen water on liver fibrogenesis in mice. Koyama, Y., Taura, K., Hatano, E., Tanabe, K., Yamamoto, G., Nakamura, K., Yamanaka, K., Kitamura, K., Narita, M., Nagata, H., Yanagida, A., Iida, T., Iwaisako, K., Fujinawa, H., Uemoto, S.., Hepatol Res.2014 Jun; 44(6):663-677.
- 9Simultaneous oral and inhalational intake of molecular hydrogen additively suppresses signaling pathways in rodents, Sobue, S., Yamai, K., Ito, M., Ohno, K., Ito, M., Iwamoto, T., et al., Mol Cell Biochem., 2015;403(1–2):231–241.
- 10Molecular hydrogen consumption in the human body during the inhalation of hydrogen gas, Shimouchi A., Nose K., Mizukami T., Che D.C., Shirai M., Adv Exp Med Biol., 2013;789:315–321.
- 11Electrolyzed-reduced water protects against oxidative damage to DNA, RNA and protein. Lee, M. Y., Kim, Y. K., Ryoo, K. K. Lee, Y. B., Park, E. J., Appl Biochem Biotechnol2006, 135, 133-144.
- 12The protective role of hydrogen-rich saline in experimental liver injury in mice. Sun, H. Chen, L. Zhou, W. Hu, L. Li, L. Tu, Q. Chang, Y. Liu, Q. Sun, X. Wu, M. Wang, H., Journal of Hepatology 2011, 54, (3) 471-480.
- 13Molecular hydrogen suppresses FcepsilonRI-mediated signal transduction and prevents degranulation of mast cells. Itoh, T., Fujita, Y., Ito, M., Masuda, A., Ohno, K., Ichihara, M., Kojima, T., Nozawa, Y., Ito, M., Biochem Biophys Res Commun2009, 389, 651-656.
- 14Molecular Hydrogen Improves Obesity and Diabetes by Inducing Hepatic FGF21 and Stimulating Energy Metabolism in db/db Mice. Kamimura, N., Nishimaki, K., Ohsawa, I., Ohta, S., Obesity2011, 19(7):1396-1403.
- 15Hepatic oxidoreduction-related genes are upregulated by administration of hydrogen-saturated drinking water. Nakai, Y., Sato, B., Ushiama, S., Okada, S., Abe, K., Arai, S., Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry2011, 75, 774-776.
- 16The evolution of molecular hydrogen: a noteworthy potential therapy with clinical significance. Dixon, B. J., Tang, J., Zhang, J. H., Med Gas Res2013, 3, 10.
- 17The neuroprotective effects of intraperitoneal injection of hydrogen in rabbits with cardiac arrest, Huang G, Zhou J, Zhan W, Xiong Y, Hu C, Li X, et al., Resuscitation, 2013; 84(5):690–695.
Dr. Hartmut Fischer